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The Karl Fischer Titration is a titration method for measuring water content in basically all types of substances. It was invented in 1935 by the German chemist Karl Fischer. The Karl Fischer Titration is based on an iodine / iodid reaction: The water reacts with iodine. The endpoint of the titration is reached when all the water is consumed. The process uses an organic base (B), sulphur dioxide, iodine and an alcohol. The original Karl Fischer method used pyridine as organic base and methanol as alcohol. Since then the reagents have been improved. Nowadays Karl Fischer reagents are available which are less toxic (no more pyridine but imidazole as organic base, ethanol instead of methanol) and which provide a faster reaction. During the titration, iodine is added to sample and the amount of iodine used to consume all the water contained in the sample is measured. There are two possibilities to add the iodide to the sample. In the so called Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration, a solution with an exactly known concentration of iodine is added to sample by means of an electric burette. The amount of iodine added to the sample is calculated from the volume of iodine solution used. In the Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration the iodine is electrolytically generated. The amount of idodine added to the sample is determined by measuring the current needed for the electrochemical generation of the iodine. When reacting with water, the brown iodine is reduced to the colourless iodide. The Hybrid Karl Fischer titration is the most advanced and at the same time the most versatile technique for Karl Fischer moisture titrations. It is basically a combination of both, the coulometric and the volumetric method: The iodine is electrolytically generated and –if the moisture content of the sample exceeds a certain level – a solution with an exactly know concentration of iodine is added at the same time. The Water Testing Laboratory performs drinking water testing as required and assists in ensuring safe drinking and source waters by testing samples provided Environmental Health Department in support of Public Health regulations. The Water Testing Laboratory also assists other organizations and agencies with monitoring projects requiring accurate microbiological testing, so that the organizations may comply with regulations and improve water quality. Water testing includes trace analysis capabilities. Intertek water analysis capabilities vary by location, please contact Intertek to determine the laboratory best suited to your water testing requirements.

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Core Analyticals Private Limited

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KriSan Biotech

Labiana Life Sciences S.A

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Merck Millipore

Pfanstiehl, Inc

Primera Analytical Solutions Corp

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Karl Fischer Titration

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Well-equipped laboratories performing comprehensive tests for the finished products, WIP, raw materials, equipment cleaning in compliance to ICH guidelines using Pharmacopoeial methods, In-house test methods and customer's requirements.

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Water Analysis

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AMRI uses various techniques to provide information on water content, hygroscopicity and hydrate formation.

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Karl Fischer Titration

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Our scientists perform routine quality control testing on thousands of our catalog products each year, giving them unparalleled expertise in developing and validating methods to analyze, quantify, and purify small molecules.

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Moisture Analysis

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To help you achieve the desired quality and performance of your compound, Recro’s veteran scientists customize solutions for your complex products. Our team adheres to global ICH guidelines to ensure the development of safe, effective, high-quality pharmaceutical products.

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Determination of Water Content

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CARBOGEN AMCIS has always strived to provide a comprehensive range of tools and techniques to facilitate this work. Analytical chemistry services support both process control and material characterization for laboratory and production chemistry from initial raw material release to the release

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Karl Fischer 

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We have a R&D team working continuously on the development of formulas and pharmaceutical technologies. By combining new synthetic and natural substances with high-tech research equipment and new drug delivery systems, we offer differentiated products.

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Coulometric Karl Fisher

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Sequent's standard tests include, but not limited to Colorimetry, Potentiometry, Titrations and Gravimetry.

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Coulometric & Volumetric Karl Fischer Testing

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Primera specializes in customized analytical method development, transfer and validation using state-of-the-art analytical tools. We also provide cGMP Sample Storage and testing services. With no observations and no 483 findings from two FDA audits, We are in full compliance with GLP/cGMP regulations.

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0.01% – 100% Water Content Determination

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R.D. Laboratories uses two types of autotitrator instruments to perform water determinations (USP chapter <921>, Type I). These are the Mettler-Toledo V20 for 0.01% – 100% water content determinations, and the KEM MKC-510 for trace level determinations.

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Karl Fischer Titration

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Chemtos' other analysis that are available upon request include Karl Fischer Titration

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Karl Fischer Titration

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Acceleration Laboratory Services is the foremost Contract Solutions Provider for the pharmaceutical research. The ultimate goal for our associates is to deliver superior solutions to our clients, on time, and on point, while maintaining a fun and empowering work environment.

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Karl Fischer Titration for Liquid Formulation

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Cook Pharmacia's On-site analytical laboratories are equipped with the latest in analytical instrumentation, enabling scientists to employ a full array of methodologies to characterize your product and develop assays that will manage your product’s integrity throughout its life cycle.

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Metrohm Karl Fischer, Coulometer & Volumetric

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KriSan Biotech has dedicated analytical team that provides full analytical services for process development, GLP studies and CGMP manufacturing.

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Characterization of Products by Karl Fischer ...

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The analytical hub of M2i Development is fitted out with equipment which enables it to perform physicochemical characterisation of products devised by its synthesis teams.

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Karl Fischer Testing

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Our services include the development & validation of analytical methods. We identify by-products and determine polymorphic product forms's broad portfolio of analytical methods includes HPLC(-MS), CE, GC(-MS), FT-IR, NMR, particle size determination etc.

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Water (Karl Fischer Titration)

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Shijiazhuang Rainbowlabs pharmaceutical Technology Co. Ltd (Rainbowlabs) is a FDA-inspected laboratory set up to provide high quality laboratory testing and services to pharmaceutical companies throughout the world.

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Sub Category: Karl Fischer / Water Analysis

Karl Fischer

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Basic Pharma Laboratory offers an extensive range of test methods at competitive prices.

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Karl Fischer Titrators for Water

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Core Analyticals Pvt. Ltd. provides service of Karl Fischer / Water Analysis with KF Titrators

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Water Content Determination

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In the analytical development area, LABIANA GROUP offers a wide range of services for pharmaceutical and veterinary industries.

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Karl Fisher Titrimetry

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Jubilant HollisterStier’s innovative microbiological and analytical labs are operated by experienced professionals using the most current equipment and procedures to ensure seamless technical transfer of analytical methods for our clients.

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Auto Titrators & Karl Fischer Titrator

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Megsan Labs is an USFDA inspected leading analytical testing laboratory, we focused and committed to deliver testing services to our costumers with excellence in quality, compliance and promptness

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Water Testing

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Dalton offers a full range of microbiology testing services to support every product need.

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Titration & Water determination

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Chemcon's analytic machines are regularly calibrated and qulified. Our analytical suite is state-of-the-art and is being extended continuously.

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Two Automated Brinkman Karl Fisher titrators

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Analytical Services Laboratory is equipped with modern analytical testing instrumentation

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Water content- Karl Fisher & Coulometer

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Cebiphar offers various techniques to assess water content: Karl Fisher and coulometer.

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Pharma Service: Analytical

Category: Analytical Testing Services

Sub Category: Karl Fischer / Water Analysis

The Karl Fischer Titration is a titration method for measuring water content in basically all types of substances. It was invented in 1935 by the German chemist Karl Fischer. The Karl Fischer Titration is based on an iodine / iodid reaction: The water reacts with iodine. The endpoint of the titration is reached when all the water is consumed. The process uses an organic base (B), sulphur dioxide, iodine and an alcohol. The original Karl Fischer method used pyridine as organic base and methanol as alcohol. Since then the reagents have been improved. Nowadays Karl Fischer reagents are available which are less toxic (no more pyridine but imidazole as organic base, ethanol instead of methanol) and which provide a faster reaction. During the titration, iodine is added to sample and the amount of iodine used to consume all the water contained in the sample is measured. There are two possibilities to add the iodide to the sample. In the so called Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration, a solution with an exactly known concentration of iodine is added to sample by means of an electric burette. The amount of iodine added to the sample is calculated from the volume of iodine solution used. In the Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration the iodine is electrolytically generated. The amount of idodine added to the sample is determined by measuring the current needed for the electrochemical generation of the iodine. When reacting with water, the brown iodine is reduced to the colourless iodide. The Hybrid Karl Fischer titration is the most advanced and at the same time the most versatile technique for Karl Fischer moisture titrations. It is basically a combination of both, the coulometric and the volumetric method: The iodine is electrolytically generated and –if the moisture content of the sample exceeds a certain level – a solution with an exactly know concentration of iodine is added at the same time. The Water Testing Laboratory performs drinking water testing as required and assists in ensuring safe drinking and source waters by testing samples provided Environmental Health Department in support of Public Health regulations. The Water Testing Laboratory also assists other organizations and agencies with monitoring projects requiring accurate microbiological testing, so that the organizations may comply with regulations and improve water quality. Water testing includes trace analysis capabilities. Intertek water analysis capabilities vary by location, please contact Intertek to determine the laboratory best suited to your water testing requirements.

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