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Technical details about Potassium Alum, learn more about the structure, uses, toxicity, action, side effects and more

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2D Structure
Also known as: Alaun, Potash alum, Potassium aluminum sulfate, Alum potassium, Exsiccated alum, Burnt alum
Molecular Formula
AlKO8S2
Molecular Weight
258.205039  g/mol
InChI Key
GRLPQNLYRHEGIJ-UHFFFAOYSA-J
FDA UNII
09OXB01F3O

1 2D Structure

2D Structure

2 Identification
2.1 Computed Descriptors
2.1.1 IUPAC Name
aluminum;potassium;disulfate
2.1.2 InChI
InChI=1S/Al.K.2H2O4S/c;;2*1-5(2,3)4/h;;2*(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+3;+1;;/p-4
2.1.3 InChI Key
GRLPQNLYRHEGIJ-UHFFFAOYSA-J
2.1.4 Canonical SMILES
[O-]S(=O)(=O)[O-].[O-]S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Al+3].[K+]
2.2 Other Identifiers
2.2.1 UNII
09OXB01F3O
2.3 Synonyms
2.3.1 MeSH Synonyms

1. Alum

2. Aluminum Hydrogen Sulfate

3. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate

4. Aluminum Sulfate

5. Potassium Aluminum Sulfate

2.3.2 Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

1. Alaun

2. Potash Alum

3. Potassium Aluminum Sulfate

4. Alum Potassium

5. Exsiccated Alum

6. Burnt Alum

7. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate

8. Aluminum Potassium Disulfate

9. Burnt Potassium Alum

10. Alum, Potassium

11. Aluminum Potassium Alum

12. Potassium Aluminum Alum

13. Tai-ace K 20

14. Tai-ace K 150

15. Unii-09oxb01f3o

16. Dialuminum Dipotassium Sulfate

17. Ccris 6842

18. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate, Alum

19. Hsdb 2685

20. Aluminium Potassium Bis(sulphate)

21. Sulfuric Acid, Aluminum Potassium Salt (2:1:1)

22. Einecs 233-141-3

23. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate, Anhydrous

24. Potassium Aluminum Sulfate (1:1:2)

25. 10043-67-1

26. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate (alk(so4)2)

27. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate (kal(so4)2)

28. Alum, N.f

29. Alum, N.f.

30. Agn-pc-0jkhvi

31. Alum, Potassium Anhydrous

32. Ac1l2nq3

33. 09oxb01f3o

34. Grlpqnlyrhegij-uhfffaoysa-j

35. 10043-01-3 (parent)

36. Akos015856586

37. Aluminium(3+) Ion Potassium Disulfate

38. Aluminium(3+) Potassium Ion Disulfate

39. Aluminum Potassium Sulfate, Acs

40. Ls-7184

41. Ft-0622226

42. Ft-0626636

43. 131315-49-6

2.4 Create Date
2005-08-08
3 Chemical and Physical Properties
Molecular Weight 258.205039 g/mol
Molecular Formula AlKO8S2
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count0
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count8
Rotatable Bond Count0
Exact Mass257.848704 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass257.848704 g/mol
Topological Polar Surface Area177 A^2
Heavy Atom Count12
Formal Charge0
Complexity62.2
Isotope Atom Count0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count0
Covalently Bonded Unit Count4
4 Drug and Medication Information
4.1 Therapeutic Uses

Adjuvants, Immunologic

National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings online file (MeSH, 1999)


IN TREATMENT OF GUM BLEEDING & CHRONIC & ACUTE GINGIVITIS.

CABARDO AM JR; PERIODONTAL POWDER. BRITISH PATENT NUMBER 1543029 03/28/79


THE DOSE AS AN ASTRINGENT IS 0.5-5%.

Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975., p. 717


Five patients with malignant hemopathies, including four treated by bone marrow transplantation, developed <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2907" href="/compound/cyclophosphamide">cyclophosphamide</a> induced hemorrhagic cystitis that failed to respond to the usual treatments. Each was treated by continuous irrigation of the bladder with <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24856" href="/compound/potassium%20alum">potassium alum</a>. Hematuria ceased in three patients followed up for 5 to 10 months. A review of the literature confirmed the 75% success rate of this treatment. No local side effects were recorded, but one patient had a single seizure.

Gattegno B et al; Ann Urol (Paris) 34 (3): 190-2 (1990)


MEDICATION (VET): AS ANTISEPTIC, ANTIMYCOTIC

Rossoff, I.S. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974., p. 11


CAUSTICS ARE USED TO DESTROY WARTS, CONDYLOMATA, KERATOSES, CERTAIN MOLES, & HYPERPLASTIC TISSUE. THEY HAVE ALSO BEEN USED IN MGMNT OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS & ECZEMATOID DERMATITIS. AGENTS COMMONLY CLASSIFIED IN THIS CATEGORY INCL ... EXSICCATED ALUM ... .

Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985., p. 951


MEDICATION (VET): TOPICALLY, IN ASTRINGENT WASHES, POWDERS, & "LEG TIGHTENERS" FOR HORSES. ... OCCASIONALLY USED FOR STOMATITIS & VAGINAL & INTRAUTERINE THERAPY IN CATTLE. (VET): ORAL DOSAGE IN CATTLE FOR GREEN CORN ENGORGEMENT, PROBABLY AS RESULT OF ITS USE IN LAMINITIS IN HORSES & CATTLE.

Rossoff, I.S. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974., p. 11


A veterinary wound healing powder contains 1.41-10.81% alum.

Weathers EC; Wound healing powder for livestock; US Patent No 4440755 04/03/84


/<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24856" href="/compound/Aluminum%20potassium%20sulfate">Aluminum potassium sulfate</a> is used as an/ astringent. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24856" href="/compound/Aluminum%20potassium%20sulfate">Aluminum potassium sulfate</a>/

The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 53


Alum precipitates proteins and is a powerful astringent. Alum, either as a solid or as a solution, may be used as a haemostatic for superficial abrasions and cuts and ulcers on the lips. Dilute solutions have been used as mouth-washes or gargles. Local hyperhidrosis may be relieved by bathing the affected parts with a 2% solution of alum. Stronger solutions (5 to 10%) harden the epidermis and are useful in treating soft corns or sore feet; alum in purified talc has been used as a foot powder. Pediatric Alum and <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23994" href="/compound/Zinc">Zinc</a> Dusting-powder has been employed for application to the umbilical cord; it is not suitable for use as a general dusting-powder. /Alum/

Reynolds, J.E.F., Prasad, A.B. (eds.) Martindale-The Extra Pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1982., p. 283


/Burnt alum is used in/ medicine (astringent).

Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987., p. 42


/The following <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> salts are used in the various drug classes./ (1) Antacids: <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>; <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-16683978" href="/compound/dihydroxyaluminum%20acetate">dihydroxyaluminum acetate</a>; <a class="pubchem-internal-link multiple-CIDs" href="/compound/aluminum%20carbonate">aluminum carbonate</a>; aluminum oxide; <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-21863082" href="/compound/bismuth%20aluminate">bismuth aluminate</a>; <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-6336542" href="/compound/magaldrate">magaldrate</a>; dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate; and dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate. (2) Internal analgesics (buffered aspirins): aluminum hydroxide and <a class="pubchem-internal-link multiple-CIDs" href="/compound/aluminum%20glycinate">aluminum glycinate</a>. (3) Antidiarrheals: kaolin; <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-3084116" href="/compound/aluminum%20magnesium%20silicate">aluminum magnesium silicate</a>; and attapulgite. (4) Douches: <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-3032540" href="/compound/ammonium%20aluminum%20sulfate">ammonium aluminum sulfate</a> (5- 16%); <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24856" href="/compound/potassium%20aluminum%20sulfate">potassium aluminum sulfate</a>; and alum (12%). (5) Antiulcerative: aluminum sucrose sulfate. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> salts, from table/

Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 1010


Medicinally, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> and its salts are used in antacids, antidiarrheals, and protective dermatological pastes. It is also found in cosmetics and deodorants. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> and its salts/

National Research Council. Drinking Water & Health, Volume 4. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981., p. 156


No specific treatment /for <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-28179" href="/compound/fluoride">fluoride</a> poisoning/ exists at present. There is no known way to mobilize <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-28179" href="/compound/fluoride">fluoride</a> from bone. Tolerance to <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-28179" href="/compound/fluoride">fluoride</a> can be increased by a balanced intake of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5460341" href="/compound/calcium">calcium</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> and vitamin D. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> salts, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-10112" href="/compound/calcium%20carbonate">calcium carbonate</a>, and defluorinated <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> can be administered orally to form insoluble compounds with <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-28179" href="/compound/fluoride">fluoride</a> in the gut. ... /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> salts/

Booth, N.H., L.E. McDonald (eds.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982., p. 1046


EXPTL THERAPY: An in vitro oil/<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-962" href="/compound/water">water</a> (<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-957" href="/compound/octanol">octanol</a>/<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> free aqueous buffer) system was used to determine solubilization of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> from aluminum borate as hydrophilic or lipophilic complexes and the potential chelation ability of 12 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> chelators: <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-6224" href="/compound/Trisodium%20citrate">Trisodium citrate</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-37336" href="/compound/N%2CN%27-bis%282-hydroxybenzyl%29ethylenediamine-N%2CN%27-diacetic%20acid">N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-8078" href="/compound/cyclohexane">cyclohexane</a>-1,2-diaminotetraacetic acid, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-3053" href="/compound/diethylenetriaminepentaacetic%20acid">diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-8758" href="/compound/nitrilotriacetic%20acid">nitrilotriacetic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2973" href="/compound/desferrioxamine">desferrioxamine</a>, ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid), tetracycline, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-6049" href="/compound/EDTA">EDTA</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-19" href="/compound/2%2C3-dihydroxybenzoic%20acid">2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-31275" href="/compound/1%2C4-dioxane">1,4-dioxane</a>, and <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5235" href="/compound/sodium%20fluoride">sodium fluoride</a>. To determine if the results apply to a biological system the potential chelators were tested in New Zealand white rabbits for their ability to increase urinary <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> excretion in <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> loaded animals. In vitro tests used two concentrations of each chelator with a zero concentration control and each chelator was tested 3 times for solubilization. For in vivo tests the rabbits were loaded with 20 sc injections of 600 umol <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>/kg/injection over 4 wk. Two wk after <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> loading, chelators were given at 2 doses. Both doses of each chelator were tested in 4 rabbits except when lethality was expected. Urine was collected using an 8-French pediatric foley catheter into the bladder, and urinary excretion was stimulated by infusion of 25 ml/hr saline in an ear vein. Chelator solution was given intragastrically in 10 ml/kg <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-962" href="/compound/water">water</a>, and 6 rabbits received only sterile <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-962" href="/compound/water">water</a> as a control. It was shown in vitro that <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5235" href="/compound/sodium%20fluoride">sodium fluoride</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-6049" href="/compound/EDTA">EDTA</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-19" href="/compound/2%2C3-dihydroxybenzoic%20acid">2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-31275" href="/compound/1%2C4-dioxane">1,4-dioxane</a>, and tetracycline were significantly less (p&lt; 0.01) effective than <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2973" href="/compound/desferrioxamine">desferrioxamine</a> for chelating <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>, and these compounds had no effect on urinary output of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-6224" href="/compound/Trisodium%20citrate">Trisodium citrate</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-37336" href="/compound/N%2CN%27-bis%282-hydroxybenzyl%29ethylenediamine-N%2CN%27-diacetic%20acid">N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-8078" href="/compound/cyclohexane">cyclohexane</a>-1,2-diaminotetraacetic acid,<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-3053" href="/compound/diethylenetriaminepentaacetic%20acid">diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-8758" href="/compound/nitrilotriacetic%20acid">nitrilotriacetic acid</a>, ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid), and <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2973" href="/compound/desferrioxamine">desferrioxamine</a> were 55 to 109% efficient in solubilizing <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. Of the compounds tested, only <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2973" href="/compound/desferrioxamine">desferrioxamine</a> and ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) increased urinary output, 4 and 2.6 times, respectively, of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> when compared to the control. /Aluminum borate/

Yokel RA, Kostenbauder HB; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 91 (2): 281-94 (1987)


CAUSTICS ARE USED TO DESTROY WARTS, CONDYLOMATA, KERATOSES, CERTAIN MOLES, & HYPERPLASTIC TISSUE. THEY HAVE ALSO BEEN USED IN MGMNT OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS & ECZEMATOID DERMATITIS. AGENTS COMMONLY CLASSIFIED IN THIS CATEGORY INCL ... EXSICCATED ALUM ... .

Gilman, A.G., L.S.Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1985., p. 951


4.2 Drug Warning

<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> salts may cause <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a> depletion which is generally negligible. However, with prolonged administration or large doses, hypophosphatemia may occur, especially in patients with inadequate dietary intake of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a>; hypercalciuria secondary to bone resorption and increased intestinal absorption of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5460341" href="/compound/calcium">calcium</a> results. This <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a> depletion syndrome is characterized by anorexia, malaise, and muscle weakness, and prolonged <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> antacid therapy may cause urinary calculi, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. A low <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a> diet, diarrhea, excessive <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a> losses from malabsorption, and restoration of renal function after a kidney transplant increase the likelihood of the syndrome. Serum <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> concentrations should be monitored at monthly or bimonthly intervals in patients on maintenance hemodialysis who are receiving chronic <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> antacid therapy. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> salts/

McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). AHFS Drug Information 90. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Inc., 1990 (Plus Supplements 1990)., p. 1620


Large doses of alum are irritant and may be corrosive; gum necrosis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage have occurred. Adverse effects on muscle and kidneys have been reported. /Alum/

Reynolds, J.E.F., Prasad, A.B. (eds.) Martindale-The Extra Pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1982., p. 283


5 Pharmacology and Biochemistry
5.1 MeSH Pharmacological Classification

Adjuvants, Immunologic

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund&#39;s adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.


5.2 Absorption, Distribution and Excretion

<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> SALTS ARE ABSORBED IN ... SMALL AMT FROM THE DIGESTIVE TRACT. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> SALTS/

Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972., p. 169


It was calculated that a dialysate <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concn of 0.2-1.0 mg/l (a concn readily found in many <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-962" href="/compound/water">water</a> supplies) would result in the direct transfer of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> into the blood of 3-16 mg for each dialysis treatment or 42-211 mg/mo. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Rosas VV et al; Arch Intern Med 138: 1375 (1978)


A given oral dose of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> results in significantly higher serum and tissue levels of the metal in nephrectomized rats than in intact controls in spite of the fact that only minimal amounts of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> are normally excreted in the urine. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Berlyne GM et al; Lancet 1: 564 (1972)


It was found that 70-90% of total <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> bound to plasma proteins (60-70% to a high molecular weight protein and 10-20% to albumin while only 10-30% was unbound). This high affinity of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> for plasma proteins strongly suggests high levels of binding of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> to a variety of tissue proteins. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Elliott HL et al; Lancet 2: 1255 (1978)


It was shown that the uptake of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> into the blood during renal dialysis was due to the extensive binding of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> to plasma proteins leaving very little <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in the non-bound state in plasma. Thus, the plasma proteins served as a trap for accumulating the metal. It was shown that the component of plasma protein that binds <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> is saturable. Consistent with this ... is the fact that, during dialysis with <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>-containing dialysate, plasma <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> levels reach a plateau. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Kaehny WD et al; Kidney Int 12: 361-5 (1977)


Renal clearance of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> has been shown to be approximately 5-10% of that of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1176" href="/compound/urea">urea</a> or <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-588" href="/compound/creatinine">creatinine</a> clearance. This is entirely consistent with the marked protein binding of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in plasma, thus leaving only a small fraction of the total <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> available for filtration in the kidney. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Berlyn GM et al; Lancet 2: 494-6 (1970)


That the kidney is responsible for the elimination of a major portion of absorbed <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> is reflected in the fact that, in dogs undergoing renal dialysis ligation of the ureter (resulting in cessation of urinary output) causes a greater increase in plasma <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concn than in intact dogs undergoing comparable dialysis. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Kovalchik MT et al; J Lab Clin Med 92: 712 (1978)


The 200-300 mg of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>/kg tissue weight is most likely due to local deposition of particulate <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> from the air following inhalation and not due to a specific predilection of lung tissue for <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> has been reported in both non-urban and urban air with the latter containing as much as 10 ug/cu m. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Norseth T; Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Chapter 15 (1979)


The <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> content of gray matter of brain (essentially the inner cellular mass of the brain) was not significantly different than that in the white matter (the outer myelinated fibers of the brain). /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Alfry AC et al; NEJM 294: 184 (1976)


SINCE LITTLE <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> IS ABSORBED, IT IS EXCRETED IN THE FECES, MUCH OF IT IN THE FORM OF <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/ALUMINUM%20PHOSPHATE">ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE</a>. THERE IS NO INCR IN THE AMT OF <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> IN TISSUES, EXCEPT IN BONE (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS). /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> CMPD/

Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972., p. 169


AMT OF <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> IN TISSUES, ORGANS, BLOOD & URINE IS SMALL. ADULT HUMAN BODY MAY CONTAIN 50-150 MG ... AFTER INGESTION OF LARGE AMT VERY LITTLE APPEARS IN URINE ... BETWEEN 50 & 100 MG DAILY FOR ABOUT 70 DAYS. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a>/

Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Metals. 2nd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969., p. 5


Aluminum hydroxide or oxide is slowly solubilized in the stomach and reacts with <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-313" href="/compound/hydrochloric%20acid">hydrochloric acid</a> to form <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24012" href="/compound/aluminum%20chloride">aluminum chloride</a> and <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-962" href="/compound/water">water</a>. In addition to forming <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24012" href="/compound/aluminum%20chloride">aluminum chloride</a>, dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate and <a class="pubchem-internal-link multiple-CIDs" href="/compound/aluminum%20carbonate">aluminum carbonate</a> form <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-280" href="/compound/carbon%20dioxide">carbon dioxide</a>, and <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/aluminum%20phosphate">aluminum phosphate</a> forms <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1004" href="/compound/phosphoric%20acid">phosphoric acid</a>. About 17-30% of the <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24012" href="/compound/aluminum%20chloride">aluminum chloride</a> formed is absorbed and is rapidly excreted by the kidneys in patients with normal renal functions. In the small intestine, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24012" href="/compound/aluminum%20chloride">aluminum chloride</a> is rapidly converted to insoluble poorly absorbed basic <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> salts which probably /include/ a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxide, oxyaluminum hydroxide, various basic aluminum carbonates, and <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> soaps. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>-containing antacids (except <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/aluminum%20phosphate">aluminum phosphate</a>) also combine with dietary <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> in the intestine forming insoluble, nonabsorbable <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/aluminum%20phosphate">aluminum phosphate</a> which is excreted in the feces. If <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> intake is limited in patients with normal renal function, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> antacids (except <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/aluminum%20phosphate">aluminum phosphate</a>) decrease <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-1061" href="/compound/phosphate">phosphate</a> absorption and hypophosphatemia and hypophosphaturia occur; <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5460341" href="/compound/calcium">calcium</a> absorption is increased. In vitro studies indicate that aluminum hydroxide binds bile salts with an affinity & capacity similar to that of cholestyramine; <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/aluminum%20phosphate">aluminum phosphate</a> binds bile salts, but to a much lesser degree than does aluminum hydroxide. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> cmpd/

McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). AHFS Drug Information 90. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Inc., 1990 (Plus Supplements 1990)., p. 1618


Cations that form insoluble phosphates interfere with the absorption of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a>. For example, high intakes of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> decrease absorption of phosphorus (as phosphate) by forming insoluble <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-64655" href="/compound/aluminum%20phosphate">aluminum phosphate</a> and increasing the excretory loss of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24404" href="/compound/phosphorus">phosphorus</a>. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 278


Absorption of inhaled <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> compounds has not been studied in detail; one reason for this is probably the fact that no stable radioactive isotope of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> is available. Workers exposed to <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in connection with the production of raw <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>, <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-24850" href="/compound/aluminum%20sulfate">aluminum sulfate</a>, corundum or welding of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> have elevated levels of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in urine. This is evidence of pulmonary absorption. ... measured the total urinary elimination of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in three volunteers exposed to respirable <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> fume from welding. The urinary excretion was 0.1-0.3% of the estimated inhaled amount. In experimental animals exposed to aluminum oxide as well as in humans occupationally exposed to <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> particles, inhaled or deposited particles of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> may be retained in the lungs over long periods of time. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> cmpd/

Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 7


Studies ... strongly suggest that <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in the gastrointestinal tract and its subsequent distribution in tissue can be influenced by increasing the concentration of parathyroid hormone. Male rats were fed <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> as 0.1% of their diet for 25 days. The ready absorption of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> from the gastrointestinal tract of these normal rats was enhanced by injections of parathyroid hormone (17 U twice weekly). There was also increased deposition of the metal in the kidney, muscle, bone, and the gray matter of the brain, but not in the liver or in the white matter of the brain. Thus, the parathyroid hormone exerted a specific effect on the absorption and distribution of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. In 1977, a positive correlation between increased serum parathyroid hormone and serum <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> levels in dialysis patients ... had been reported. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

National Research Council. Drinking Water & Health, Volume 4. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981., p. 157


Trace determination of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> was carried out in blood samples from 11 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing periodical hemodialysis treatment. Analysis for <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> was made by <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462310" href="/compound/graphite">graphite</a> furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in samples taken at the beginning and end of dialysis, and of dialysate from the inflow (pre) and outflow (post) lines of dialyzers. Healthy individuals, without history of renal disease, were used as controls. The <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> concn in pre- and post-dialysis whole blood was 58 + or - 9 ug/l and 139 + or - 19 ug/l, respectively. The <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concn in pre- and post-dialysate was 235 + or - 39 ug/l and 129 + or - 10 ug/l, respectively. Blood <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concn of control subjects did not show significant differences when compared with data reported by other authors. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> was transferred to the patients' blood during the dialysis treatments, because of the high metal content tap <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-962" href="/compound/water">water</a> used to prepare the dialysates. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Navarro JA et al; Trace Elem Med 6 (2): 70-4 (1989)


<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> IN LUNGS IS PROBABLY RESULT OF LOCAL DEPOSITION FROM INHALED AIR. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a>/

Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 8


<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> SALTS ARE ABSORBED IN ... SMALL AMT FROM THE DIGESTIVE TRACT. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> SALTS/

Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972., p. 169


... ABSORPTION & REMOVAL OF INJECTED <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> COMPOUNDS SUCH AS ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE FROM IM SITES & FROM PERITONEAL CAVITY IS SLOW BUT IT IS COMPLETE IN A FEW DAYS, PROVIDED THE DOSES ARE WITHIN PHYSIOLOGIC LIMITS & ... NOT MIXED WITH ANY IRRITANTS SUCH AS ANIONS OF <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-312" href="/compound/CHLORIDE">CHLORIDE</a> & <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-943" href="/compound/NITRATE">NITRATE</a>. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/ALUMINUM">ALUMINUM</a> CMPD

Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978., p. 107


25 Preterm infants with birth wt 540 to 2280 g (20 with birth wt &lt; 1500 g) and gestational ages 24 to 37 wk, were studied to determine the response to 2 levels of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> loading from currently unavoidable contamination of various components of parenteral nutrition soln. The high <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> loading group received solutions with measured <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> content of 306 + or - 16 ug/l and the low <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> loading group received solutions with 144 + or - 16 ug <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>/l. Urine <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>:<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-588" href="/compound/creatinine">creatinine</a> ratios (ug:mg) became elevated and significantly higher in the high <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> group (1.6 + or - 0.38 vs 0.5 + or - 0.1) at the third sampling point (mean 19 days). Serum <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concn were highest at onset in both groups and stabilized with study but remained consistently higher than the normal median of 18 ug/l. Calculated urine <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> excretions were consistently low and were 34 + or - 6% vs 28 + or - 5% in the high and low groups, respectively. In both groups, urine <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> excretions were significantly lower than the calculated <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> intakes. One infant in the low group who died 39 days after termination of the study showed the presence of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> in bone trabeculae and excessive unmineralized osteoid along the trabeculae. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Koo WWK et al; J Parenter Enteral Nutr 13 (5): 516-9 (1989)


<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> concentration was measured in serum, whole blood, hair, and urine by neutron activation anlysis. Seventy six nondemented subjects were investigated. Not all assays were done on all subjects (eg, serum <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> on 76 subjects, whole blood <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> on 42 subjects), but tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concentrations were estimated on more than one occasion on 32 subjects. The mean + or - SD <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concentration in serum was 0.219 + or - 0.063 ug/ml (N = 76), in whole blood 0.368 + or - 0.091 ug/ml (N = 42), in urine 0.092 + or - 0.76 ug/ml (N = 42), and hair 6.42 + or - 2.22 ug/g (N = 42). Using product moment correlation coefficient there was no significant correlation between age and tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concentrations, nor between dietary intake of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> and tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. The tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concentrations were not stable over time even when dietary intake was constant. Tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concentrations were measured in 14 patients after 7 days of dietary control and repeated approximeately 6 weeks later, again after 7 days of dietary control. There was no significant correlation between the two estimations in any tissue measured. These results suggest that raised tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> concentrations reported in Alzheimer's disease are not an exaggeration of normal aging proces, are not likely to be simply secondary to increased dietray <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> intake, and that Alzheimer's disease does not represent the chronic toxic effect of moderately raised <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> levels at the upper end of the normal distribution. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Naylor GJ et al; Biol Psychiatry 27 (8): 884-90 (1990)


5.3 Biological Half-Life

The mean plasma half-life of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> after iv admin in dogs is approx 4.5 hr. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 1009


The shorter half-life for the urinary elimination of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> was about 8 hr. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 10


5.4 Mechanism of Action

Excessive dietary <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> has been proposed to be a factor contributing to several neurological disorders in humans. Six 8 week old female Swiss Webster mice were fed for 10 weeks purified diets containing 100 (control, 100 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>, 500 (500 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>) or 1000 (1000 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>) ug <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>/g diet. Brain and liver lipid peroxidation was determined by evaluating the production of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-thiobarbituric%20acid">2-thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances in brain and liver homogenates in the presence or absence of 50 mM <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-27284" href="/compound/ferrous">ferrous</a> <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23925" href="/compound/iron">iron</a>. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-Thiobarbituric%20acid">2-Thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances production in the absence of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23925" href="/compound/iron">iron</a> in brain homogenates from mice fed the 1000 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> diet was higher (30%) than that in the 100 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> control group (3.1 versus 2.4 nmol <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-thiobarbituric%20acid">2-thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances/mg protein). The additional of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-27284" href="/compound/ferrous">ferrous</a> <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23925" href="/compound/iron">iron</a> increased <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-thiobarbituric%20acid">2-thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances production in-brain homogenates from all 3 dietary group. The <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23925" href="/compound/iron">iron</a> induced <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-thiobarbituric%20acid">2-thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances production was 26% higher in the 1000 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> brain homogenates than in the 100 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> group (4.9 vs. 3.9 nmol <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-thiobarbituric%20acid">2-thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive subtances/mg protein). Brain <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-Thiobarbituric%20acid">2-Thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances production in the presence and absence of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23925" href="/compound/iron">iron</a> was similar between the 100 and 500 <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> groups. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-Thiobarbituric%20acid">2-Thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substances production in liver homogenates measured either with or without <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-23925" href="/compound/iron">iron</a> was similar for the 3 groups. These results show that, in mice, dietary <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> intoxication leads to increased brain <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-2723628" href="/compound/2-thiobarbituric%20acid">2-thiobarbituric acid</a> reactive substance production, suggesting that enhanced lipid peroxidation may be one possible mechanism underlying the neurological damage associated with increased tissue <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Fraga CG et al; Toxicol Lett 51 (2): 213-9 (1990)


Evidence is presented indicating that dementias are associated with a relative insufficiency of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a> in the brain. Such insufficiency may be attributable to low intake or retention of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a>; high intake of a neurotoxic metal, such a <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>, which inhibits activity of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a> requiring enzymes; or impaired transport of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a> and/or enhanced transport of the neurotoxic metal into brain tissue. It is proposed that Alzheimer's disease involves a defective transport process, characterized by both an abnormally high incorporation of <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> and an abnormally low incorporation that an altered serum protein contributes to the progression of Alzheimer's disease by having a greater affinity for <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> than for <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a>, in contrast to the normal protein, which binds <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a> better than <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a>. The altered protein crosses the blood-brain barrier more efficiently than the normal protein and competes with the normal protein in binding to brain neurons. Binding of the altered protein to the target neurons would both facilitate <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/aluminum">aluminum</a> uptake and impede <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5462224" href="/compound/magnesium">magnesium</a> uptake. Evidence suggests that albumin is the serum protein that is altered. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Glick JL; Med Hypotheses 31 (3): 211-25 (1990)


<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> is established as a neurotoxin, although the basis for its toxicity is unknown. It recently has been shown to alter the function of the blood-brain barrier, which regulates exchanges between the central nervous system and peripheral circulation. The blood-brain barrier owes its unique properties to the integrity of cell membranes that comprise it. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> affects some of the membrane like functions of the blood-brain barrier. It increases the rate of transmembrane diffusion and selectively changes saturable transport systems without disrupting the integrity of the membranes or altering CNS hemodynamics. Such alterations in the access to the brain of nutrients, hormones, toxins, and drugs could be the basis of CNS dysfunction. <a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a> is capable of altering membrane function at the blood-brain barrier; many of its effects on the CNS a well a peripheral tissues can be explained by its actions as a membrane toxin. /<a class="pubchem-internal-link CID-5359268" href="/compound/Aluminum">Aluminum</a>/

Banks WA, Kastin AJ; Neurosci Biobehav Rev 13 (1): 47-5 (1989)